Energy saving and energy efficiency
The creation of a progressively integrating European energy market imposed giving a new meaning to the national energy strategies, which to a great extent lose their traditional limits and become a part of the General European Strategy. The priorities of the energy strategy follow the priorities of the EU policy, namely: sureness of the supplies, competitiveness in the energy sector; protection of the environment.
Energy efficiency is an instrument for increasing of the energy services quality at acceptable price for the people and opportunity for reduction of the energy consumption through application of concrete energy saving measures. This policy, as a component of the Bulgarian energy policy, is based on national priorities and is harmonized with European directives requirements and market mechanisms.
The standard basis in the scope of energy efficiency includes:
- Energy Act;
- Energy Efficiency Act;
- Small and Medium Size Enterprises Act;
- Territory Structure Act;
- Secondary Legislation (Regulation for Site Energy Characteristics; Regulation for Certification of Buildings for Energy Efficiency; Regulation for Energy Efficiency Auditing; Regulation for Circumstances and Sequence for Entry of People Engaged with Certification of Buildings and Energy Efficiency Auditing, and Inquiries; Regulation for Heat Saving and Energy Saving in Buildings; Regulation for Substantial Requirements and Estimation of Construction Products Compliance);
- Other regulations.
For fulfillment of energy efficiency state policy, Bulgarian Government passed “National Short-Term Program for Energy Efficiency 2005-2015” and “National Long-Term Program for Energy Efficiency 2005-2015”.
“Energy Management” involves application of a complex engineering and economical principles for control and governing of heating expenses. The main purpose of the program for energy management is providing of micro climate in buildings or the quality of the manufactured product with minimum energy consumption and prevention of environment pollution.
Energy efficiency auditing is the kernel in the energy management program, especially when it is ushered in for the first time. In this case it shows up as a main step for strategy forming for consequently program development. It consists of studying of:
- Site in reference to energy consumption and the relevant expenses;
- The condition of the used energy-transforming elements and systems;
- Technological level of these systems and its application in development of energy saving measures.
In its overall structure and implementation the energy efficiency audit is based on systemized rules and procedures which purpose is to unveil the potential opportunities for energy saving proceeding from analysis of the site activities from sufficiently long past period up to the moment of its implementation. Types, scope and rules for implementation of energy efficiency auditing are settled in the Regulation for Energy Efficiency Auditing regarding Energy Efficiency Act.
The success achieved in energy consumption reduction cannot be maintained without uninterrupted surveillances, comparisons and analysis. This process is known as monitoring and presents an irreversible part of the energy management program. Energy efficiency audit provides feedback according to summarized indicators with several years periodicity. The monitoring system plays the part of uninterrupted feedback to the bodies for energy consumption operation control. In line with that it ensures complete and detail information which is necessary for periodically implementation of energy efficiency auditing as it reduces the expenses and terms for implementation at considerably higher quality and precision of findings, estimations and proposals.
The successful adaption and operation of energy efficiency projects are often limited by difficult achieved agreement among the partners for realization of energy savings and cash savings. The experience from many projects shows that these of them which are based on strictly implemented measurement and verification activities are with about 20% higher savings. The additional costs for implementation of the M&V program are not more than 5% but they are bought for a couple of months at the expense of additional savings and shortened costs for equipment operation and maintenance. Using of the opportunities for M&V lightens the distribution of different risks, connected to the energy saving, among suppliers and project users. As a result, the financing is lightened, the risk is reduced and the control is approved. For that purpose an international protocol for monitoring and verification of savings is created. The final aim is cash saving, even though in the energy efficiency projects we try to find a way of energy saving. Due to that reason, the project estimation for energy efficiency is based on technical and financial indicators. Main aims of the financial estimation of energy efficiency measures and projects:
- Determination if the measure or project is winning or not;
- Possibility of comparison and arrangement of different measures and projects according to their importance;
- Giving information to a bank or another financial institution whether the project financial indicators satisfy the requirements for financing of such type of projects.
The energy efficiency investment is an instrument for reduction of costs which contributes for national competiveness improvement, restriction of energy carriers import dependence, and environment protection. In contrast to the classical energetics, there are no long terms of construction works in the implementation of projects for energy efficiency improvement and the investment turnover starts right after its insertion.
Some obstacles exist during realization of energy efficiency projects in Bulgaria. The main barriers, on a large scale, for accomplishment of this project are the following: an awkward access to financial resource; assumption of considerable risk; not sufficient capacity for development of projects which are attractive for energy efficiency bank financing; weak financial stimuli for the final energy user; information barriers - weak or not sufficient knowledge.
For implementation of the projects which will be involved in the National Energy Efficiency Short-Term Program, following financial sources are possible:
- Investor’s own resources;
- Republican budget ;
- Borrowed capital;
- Sale of reduced emission entities;
- European scheme for quotas trading of greenhouse emissions;
- Free resources.